How we conquered the deadly smallpox virus

For 10,000 years, humanity suffered from the scourge of smallpox. The virus killed almost a third of its victims within two weeks and left survivors horribly scarred. Thanks to a Buddhist nun, a boy, a cow, a dairymaid and physician Edward Jenner — who first stopped the spread of this disastrous disease, to make us smallpox-free today.

Watch a video about the deadly smallpox virus and choose the best answer for each question.

1. How did the smallpox virus infection spread most frequently?

a. Through the air

b. Through the soil

c. Through blood

d. Through feces

2. What percentage of infected people would die after smallpox virus infection?

a. 13%

b. 30%

c. 33%

d. 3%

3. What percentage of people would die after variolation?

a. 13%

b. 30%

c. 33%

d. 3%

4. What did they use in the 1700s to inoculate healthy people for variolation?

a. Pus from the utters of a cow

b. Pus from a lymphnode of an infected patient

c. Pus from scabs of an infected patient

d. Pus from the fresh sores of an infected patient

5. How intense were the clinical symptoms of cowpox as compared to smallpox in humans?

a. More intense

b. Less intense

c. Same intensity

d. We cannot compare them as they are caused by two different viruses


Lesson by Simona Zompi, animation by Augenblick Studios.

How do vaccines work?

Watch a video about a vaccine and choose the best answer for each question.

1. Edward Jenner succeeded in creating a vaccine against smallpox by injecting patients with material of which disease?

a) Smallpox

b) Cowpox

c) Cattle virus

d) Measles virus

2. What is the function of innate immune response?

a) Act very rapid as a first line of defense to eliminate the infection

b) Trap microbes so they cannot spread in our body freely

c) Coordinate and support adaptive immunity

d) All of the above

3. What is the main advantage of live attenuated vaccine?

a) It provides more durable immunity; boosters may be required, though less frequently than would otherwise be necessary

b) It is safer than other kinds of vaccines

c) It does not cause any severe side effects or complications

d) It is suitable for people with any type of health

4. Which is not true about subunit vaccines?

a) They can be designed using molecular biology technique

b) They are less harmful than live attenuated vaccine

c) They generally are made of polypeptide or oligopeptide

d) They provide lifetime protection

5. Since we have our immune system to protect us from disease, why do we still need a vaccine?

a) Because some diseases are too severe for our immune system

b) Because adaptive immunity takes days to weeks to initiate a response and sometimes it is too late

c) Because some people are immune deficient or have weak immune systems

d) All of the above


The chemistry of cars

There are over one billion cars in the world right now, getting people from point A to point B. But cars aren’t just a mode of transportation; they also teach an excellent lesson in chemistry. Cynthia Chubbuck navigates the intricate chemistry performed in our car engines that keep them from getting too hot or too cold.

Watch a video about the antifreeze and coolant and answer the questions.

1. What kind of liquid can absorb the heat from an internal combustion engine?




2. Why do we need the cooling system?




3. What will happen if our car has water in the radiator and gets cold enough to freeze?




4. What is the highest recommended mixture of water and ethylene glycol?




5. What is the new freezing point and boiling point after using antifreeze and coolant?


The Hippo That Lives In A House

Listening Quiz

Choose the best answer for each question.

1. Who does Jessica have her afternoon snack with?

a) Tony

b) the dogs

c) the crocodiles

2. Which room is Jessica’s favorite?

a) the bedroom

b) the kitchen

c) the bedroom

3. What does Jessica enjoy before go to bed?

a) a nice cup of tea

b) a massage

c) The video doesn’t say

4. What is Tony Joubert’s job?

a) He is a wildlife photographer.

b) He is a game warden.

c) He is a hunter.

5. What has Jessica broke in the house?

a) a sofa and a bed

b) lots of vases

c) a chair and a table

6. What other types of animal has Tony raised?

a) giraffes, tigers and bears

b) The video doesn’t say

c) elephants, buffaloes and lions

7. What does Jessica drink twice a day?

a) weak hot tea

b) weak sweet coffee

c) strong black coffee

8. How long do hippos usually live?

a) The video doesn’t say

b) into their forties

c) into their fifties


Remembering Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela Listening Quiz

Choose the best answer for each question.

1. When was  Nelson Mandela born?

a) July 18, 1919

b) July 18, 1918

c) July 19, 1919

2. ANC is short for…

a) The African Nation Congress

b) The African Nation Convention

c) The African Nationalist Congress

3. When did  Nelson Mandela become head of the ANC’s Youth Wing?

a) in the 1960’s

b) in the 1950’s

c) in the 1940’s

4. When did South African government ban the African Nation Congress ?

a) in 1960

b) in 1963

c) in 1968

5. How much time did Nelson Mandela spent in the notorious Robben Island prison?

a) 15 years

b) 18 years

c) 21 years

6. When was Nelson Mandela finally released from the prison?

a) in 1987

b) in 1990

c) in 1994

7. How long did Nelson Mandela serve as President of South Africa?

a) 5 years

b) 10 years

c) 15 years

8. What did Nelson Mandela do on his 80th birthday?

a) the video doesn’t say

b) he celebrated his released from prison

c) he got married


The Gas Industry

While you listen, complete these sentences with words taken from the report.

1. Gas will soon become as important to the world as _______ is today.
2. There has been a global _______ in demand for natural gas.
3. The cleanest fossil fuel to burn is _______.
4. In the past it was only possible to transport gas short distances using _______.
5. Gas can now be frozen into _______ form and shipped in refrigerated tankers.
6. LNG is the abbreviation for liquefied _______ _______.
7. There are _______ and _______ risks associated with the development of LNG.
8. Despite high _______ costs, energy firms are investing heavily in LNG projects.
9. _______ could soon have a high level of control over the LNG market.
10. Experts say that gas could be the dominant fuel for the next _______ years.



Engineering Projects

While you listen, decide whether the following sentences are true or false.

1. Recently great advances have been made in motor technology.  ___________

2. Engineers are constantly looking for new ways to use existing models. __________

3. Engineers have more freedom for experimentation than in Faraday’s times. _________

4. The newest motors lose more heat than the traditional motors. __________

5. The newest motors are more compact than they used to be. _________

6. A new motor developed by Omron may replace motors currently used in hydraulic systems. __________