How playing sports benefits your body … and your brain


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The victory of the underdog. The last minute penalty shot that wins the tournament. The training montage. Many people love to glorify victory on the field, cheer for teams, and play sports. But should we be obsessed with sports? Are sports as good for us as we make them out to be, or are they just a fun and entertaining pastime?

Watch a video about playing sports and choose the correct answers.

1. Around what age does bone density begin to decrease?

A) 15
B) 21
C) 30
D) 60

2. Exercising increases the rush of endorphins, which lead to feelings of:

A) Anger
B) Depression
C) Euphoria
D) Exhaustion

3. Experiencing defeat as an athlete can be tough, but critical for building:

A) Muscle
B) Friendship
C) Memories
D) Resilience

4. Which of the following is an effect of cardiovascular exercise?

A) Reduction of bad cholesterol
B) Lower blood pressure
C) Decreased risk of heart attack
D) Decreased risk of diabetes
E) All of the above

5. Being on a sports team means learning to trust and depend on others, accept and give help, and work together towards a common goal. Therefore, being on a team can lead to:

A) Making new friends
B) Feeling alone
C) Sparking competition with enemies
D) Disliking the coach

6. Playing sports, or exercise in general, increases endorphins. What benefits do increased endorphins offer?

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The Creators


Leah Lagos 
Educator

Jaspal Ricky Singh
Educator


Mia Nacamulli
Script Editor

Serin Inan 
Director

Tolga Yildiz 
Director

Serin Inan 
Producer

Tolga Yildiz 
Designer

Tuncay Cetin 
Animator

Cem Misirlioglu
Composer

Brooks Ball 
Composer

Why is Mount Everest so tall?


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At 8,850 meters above sea level, Qomolangma, also known as Mount Everest, has the highest altitude on the planet. But how did this towering formation get so tall? Let’s peer deep into our planet’s crust, where continental plates collide, to find the answer.

Watch a video about Mount Everest and choose the correct answers.

1. Pieces of the Earth’s crust move:

A) Over each other
B) Under each other
C) Around each other
D) All of the above

2. What forces shape mountains?

A) Uplift
B) Weathering
C) Erosion
D) All of the above

3. How does continental uplift occur?

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4. Mount Everest is:

A) The snowiest peak on the planet
B) The tallest mountain from base to summit on the planet, at 10,200 meters
C) The mountain with the highest altitude on the planet, at 8,850 meters
D) Known as Qomolangma
E) Both C and D

5.  When two plates collide, such as the Indian and Eurasian Plates, what occurs to accommodate the extra crust?

A) Subsidence
B) Uplift
C) Weathering
D) Formation of glaciers

6. What best gives a mountain its shape?

A) The balance between uplift and erosion
B) The climate
C) The flora and fauna on the mountain
D) The tectonic plate it is located on
E) Its latitude

7. Which factor(s), along with time, affect the shape of a mountain?

A) Gravity
B) Water
C) Erosion rate
D) A and B only
E) All of the above

8. Snowline occurs at different heights around the planet due to differences in:

A) Plate boundaries
B) Weathering and erosion
C) Climate
D) Weather

9. What is the relationship between mountain slope (or steepness) and glacial flow?

A) As a mountain increases in steepness, glaciers flow faster
B) As a mountain decreases in steepness, glaciers flow faster
C) There is no relationship between how steep a mountain is and glacial movement

10.  Summarize all the factors that make Mount Everest so tall.

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The Creators :

Michele Koppes
Educator

Emma Bryce 
Script Editor

Iuri Araújo 
Director

Iuri Araújo 
Animator

Guilherme Araújo
Director

Guilherme Araújo
Animator

Cem Misirlioglu
Sound Designer

The otherworldly creatures in the ocean’s deepest depths


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About 60 percent of the ocean is a cold, dark region that spans down to 11,000 meters. This zone is known as the deep ocean, and though it seems like an inhospitable and remote corner of the planet, it is actually one of the greatest habitats on Earth. Let’s  explore how so many species thrive in this mysterious underwater world.

Watch a video about the deep sea creatures and choose the correct answers.

1.  At which depth does photosynthesis generally stop?

A) 50m
B) 200m
C) 1000m
D) 11000m

2. The “Azoic theory” states that:

A) There is no life in the deep sea
B) Life is only possible until 1000 m
C) Animals cannot adapt to great depths
D) Only giant squids can live in the deep sea

3. Which adaptation is commonly observed in deep sea animals?

A) Swimming against the current
B) Swimming sack
C) Bioluminescence
D) Lack of legs

4. How big can a giant squid be?

A) 15m
B) 18m
C) 23m
D) 45m

5. Which animals are typical deep sea animals?

A) Polar bears and seals
B) Killer whales and clown fish
C) Angler fish and spider crabs
D) Penguins and sea elephants

6. Which other adaptations might deep sea animals have?

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7.  Do you think animals from the deep sea could survive when brought up to the surface?

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The Creators :
Lidia Lins Pereira  /  Educator
Emma Bryce  / Script Editor
Viviane Leezer / Director
Viviane Leezer / Animator
Stephen LaRosa / Composer

How do pain relievers work?


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Some people take aspirin or ibuprofen to treat everyday aches and pains, but how exactly do the different classes of pain relievers work? Learn about the basic physiology of how humans experience pain, and the mechanics of the medicines we’ve invented to block or circumvent that discomfort.


Watch a video about the pain relievers and choose the correct answers.

1.  What is the difference between regular nerve cells and nociceptors?

a)  Nociceptors only fire when cells are damaged.
b)  Nociceptors only fire when cells are in danger of damage, or are being damaged.
c)  Nociceptors only fire when prostaglandins are present.
d)  Nociceptors only fire when you haven’t taken any painkillers.

2.  Explain why we feel pain. In your answer, consider what life would be like if we did not feel pain, and give examples of situations in which pain is helpful.

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3.  What event triggers the production of chemicals that lower the pain threshold?

a)  Burning your tongue
b)  Stubbing your toe
c)  Listening to Justin Bieber
d)  Anything that damages cells

4. Why might aspirin and ibuprofen reduce fever?

a)  Because COX-1 and COX-2 raise our body temperature
b)  Because prostaglandin H2 raises our body temperature
c)  Because arachidonic acid raises our body temperature
d)  Because prostaglandin H2 is converted into stuff that raises our body temperature

5.  How do painkillers “know” where you’re feeling pain?

a)  They don’t know; they just go everywhere
b)  They can sense where COX-1 and COX-2 are being produced
c)  They don’t know; they only go to your brain and block pain from there
d)  They can hear cells screaming

6.  What’s the difference between aspirin and ibuprofen?

a)  Aspirin deactivates COX-1 and ibuprofen deactivates COX-2
b)  Aspirin is a more effective painkiller
c)  Ibuprofen is a more effective painkiller
d)  Aspirin permanently deactivates COX-1 and COX-2; ibuprofen only temporarily deactivates COX-1 and COX-2

****The example of vocabulary journal :

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The creators :  

Aaron Augenblick, Lisa Thomas   Producer  

George Zaidan  Educator  

Hal Lee   Director

Iona Nistor  Animator

How stress affects your brain


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Stress isn’t always a bad thing; it can be handy for a burst of extra energy and focus, like when you’re playing a competitive sport or have to speak in public. But when it’s continuous, it actually begins to change your brain. This video shows how chronic stress can affect brain size, its structure, and how it functions, right down to the level of your genes.

Watch a video and choose the best answer for each question.

1. Where are the endocrine glands that control the HPA axis?

a) Brain and spinal cord

b) Skin and heart

c) Brain and kidneys

d) Stomach and kidneys

2. How does increased cortisol make you more afraid?

a) It increases the activity of the neurons in the fear center of your brain, the amygdala

b) It decreases the activity in your frontal cortex, which controls courage

c) It tricks your brain into thinking there’s danger

d) It increases connections between neurons

3. What function does the hippocampus NOT control?

a) Learning

b) Fear

c) Memory

d) Stress

4. How does chronic stress affect your brain’s size?

a) It makes a swell like a balloon

b) It reduces synaptic connections between neurons, causing the brain to shrink

c) It increases synaptic connections, and therefore shrinks

d) It doesn’t, your brain size never changes

5. What are epigenetic changes?

a) Changes to your genetic code, caused by environmental factors

b) Changes in which genes are expressed, caused by disease

c) Changes in which genes are expressed, caused by environmental factors

d) Changes in your genetic code, caused by disease

6. What are some ways to manage stress?

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The Creators :

Madhumita Murgia   Educator

Andrew Zimbelman  Director

Andrea Sertz Jew  Producer

Joshua Smoak  Composer

How sugar affects the brain


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When you eat something loaded with sugar, your taste buds, your gut and your brain all take notice. This activation of your reward system is not unlike how bodies process addictive substances such as alcohol or nicotine — an overload of sugar spikes dopamine levels and leaves you craving more.

Watch a video and choose the best answer for each question.

1. Sugars are ________________ processed foods such as tomato sauce, dried fruit, and granola bars.

a.  added to

b. removed from

c. neither added to nor removed from

d. activated in

2. Sugar ___________ the brain’s reward system.

a. destroys

b. represses

c. activates

d. does nothing to

3. Overstimulation of the reward system may result in

a. Loss of control

b. Craving

c. Increased tolerance

d. All of the above

4. What important chemical in the brain is changed in response to sugar ingestion?

a. Melanin

b. Insulin

c. Urea

d. Dopamine

5. What kind of diet has an effect in the brain that is similar to eating a balanced meal?

a. Eating sugary foods once in a while

b. Eating sugary foods all the time

c. Eating only processed foods

d. Eating about 4 sugar cubes before each meal

6. Using the information from the video, briefly describe how eating sugar can lead to greater cravings, loss of control, and increased tolerance.

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The Creators :

Nicole Avena   Educator

Chris Boyle  Director

How do carbohydrates impact your health?


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The things we eat and drink on a daily basis can impact our health in big ways. Too many carbohydrates, for instance, can lead to insulin resistance, which is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease and Type 2 Diabetes. But what are carbs, exactly? And what do they do to our bodies?

 

Watch a video and choose the best answer for each question.

1.  Glucose, fructose and galactose are all types of:

a) Monosaccharides

b) Disaccharides

c) Polysaccharides

d) Oligosaccharides

2.  In starches, the glucose units are joined together by:

a) Oligosaccharides

b) Peptide bonds

c) Alpha bonds

d) Beta bonds

3. Which of these foods would have the lowest glycemic index?

a) Crackers

b) White bread

c) Rice

d) Scrambled eggs

4.  Which hormone is largely responsible for facilitating the movement of glucose out of the blood and into the body’s cells?

a) Testosterone

b) Estrogen

c) Glucagon

d) Insulin

5. What is thought to be the underlying cause of metabolic syndrome?

a) Insulin sensitivity

b) Insulin resistance

c) High blood cholesterol

d) Cigarette smoking

6. Why do foods like meat, cheese, and eggs have the lowest glycemic index?

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The Creators :

Richard J. Wood   Educator

Eleanor Nelsen  Script Editor

Qa’ed Mai   Animator